Mecca has little arable land and must import most of its food. Those Muslims who travel into this area as they progress toward the Mother of Cities must profess their having undergone a state of ritual purity and consecration. Written with a deep understanding of Arab culture and history, this is a story which throws striking light on the resurgence of militant Islam today. The Quraysh rebuilt and roofed the Kaʿbah, draping it with a black cloth known as kiswah. The third aspect of the pilgrimage involves walking about five miles to the town of Mina, then onward to the plain of Arafat, 10 miles farther to the east.
He captured the city shortly after. Jerusalem and Mecca: The Typology of the Holy City in the Near East. The hajj generally lasts about 13 days, but when as many as two million pilgrims crowd into Mecca to observe the annual event, it may last a day or two longer to accommodate the vast numbers of the faithful. Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy City. In 630 Mecca opened its gates to Muhammad, who was able to take it without bloodshed. In addition to wearing these simple white clothes, pilgrims must also refrain from anger, disputes, and sexual relations so that they may focus on obedience and devotion to God.
The region is oppressively hot, almost completely infertile, and devoid of rainfall, though infrequent winter storms of great violence with their concomitant torrents sayl, pl. Near the Kaʿba are the tombs of Ismaʿil Ishmael and his mother, Hagar. It is the site of the Kaʿba and the well of Zamzam, sites of veneration since, as Muslims believe, Abraham passed by them. When Muhammad began his ministry here, the Meccans rejected him. The generations following Abraham had introduced idolatrous, polytheistic practices in the shrine, contrary to the pure monotheism of Abraham. After they walk the five miles back to Mecca, the final stage of the hajj is achieved with a festival in which a sheep, goat, cow, or camel is sacrificed to commemorate the moment when God rescinded the command to Abraham to sacrifice his son and permitted him to slay a ram and offer its blood in Isaac's stead. Thus Mecca became a provincial backwater ruled by governors appointed from afar.
At the center of Mecca is the Great Mosque, the Haram, which encloses the , the focus of Muslim worship. Mecca became an important market town and stopping point along the caravan routes connecting with. In 622, Muhammad left Mecca for Yathrib, which was later renamed Medina, City of the Prophet, where he began to amass many followers. There was again a major political change with Sultan Sel îm's conquest of Egypt 1517 ; the relative dependence of Mecca upon Constantinople and Egypt then varied with the relative strengths of the two. Later it came to possess the respected shrine to which the Arab tribes would make pilgrimage. When he emerged as a prophet in 610, the Meccans initially rejected his monotheism as a challenge to their polytheistic cults, which had made Mecca an important commercial and financial center. A Shīʿite Pilgrimage to Mecca, 1885 —1886: The Safarnameh of Mīrzā Muḥammad Hosayn Farahanī, edited, translated, and annotated by Hafez Farmayan and Elton L.
Jacket faded at spine, sunned, lightly soiled, edgeworn, with small tear at heel of spine. To Muslims throughout history, Mecca has furnished a focus in their spiritual quest and has reenacted its symbolic presence in all sacred buildings of Islam—in the United States and throughout the world. The pilgrimage service industry has grown over the centuries and is highly specialized. It was sacked in 930 by the and taken by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. The Arab tribes in Mecca traced their genealogy to Ishmael, but their legend connected the city and its sanctuary with Adam, for whom God built the original Kaʿbah. It is at this point that they set aside the clothes in which they have traveled and don a special article of clothing consisting of two seamless white sheets. All able-bodied Muslims who have sufficient financial means and whose absence from their families would not create a hardship must undertake a pilgrimage, a hajj, to Mecca once in their lifetime during the Muslim month of Dhu-al-Hijah the twelfth lunar month.
This sacrifice proved to be unnecessary, and Ibrahim was allowed to substitute the sacrifice of an animal. Some generations before Muhammad, who died in 632, a tribe called the Quraysh, under the leadership of Qusayy, took over the springs there and the shrine. Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter the city and its environs. The birthplace of the Prophet. Eerdmans' Handbook to the World's Religions. As with all major historical pilgrimages, commerce and services have always flourished within and around the hajj. It was the birthplace in ad 570 of the prophet , and was the scene of his early teachings before his emigration to Medina in 622 the.
On the plains of Arafat in 632, Muhammad preached to an assembled crowd that tradition numbers as some 30,000 of his followers. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. Orange cloth covered boards with sharp corners. In the contemporary world the hajj also strengthens the sense among Muslims of a worldwide community of believers. Stored in sealed plastic protection. The city is paramount in the history of because it was the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad, the site of many of his revelations from , the focal point of daily prayer and the main center of pilgrimage.
Mecca, known to the faithful as Umm al-Qura, the Mother of Cities, is the holiest place in the Islamic world. He immediately established the practices, thus ensuring the centrality of Mecca to life, even when the centres of political power under different of caliphs moved far away. In the twenty-first century, Islam is one of the world's largest religions with an estimated membership of 1. Pilgrimages to the vicinity predate the founding of Islam there were evidently pre-Islamic pilgrimages to nearby Arafat and Mina, and the was a religious site before it became a focus of worship for Muslims , but the Islamic Mecca hajj is more than 1,300 years old. Illustrations in black and white.