They have been told or have assumed that you begin with a question then shop around for the kind of research approach that best allows you to answer that question. It aims to discover and document what it is like to be participating in the scheme, whether What is case study? The pressures of national curriculum, Ofsted inspections, Teacher Training Agency control of teacher qualifications and national literacy and numeracy hours are gradually changing the nature of teachers' work. In the language that I am now recommending, this successful testing of a hypothesis can lead to the formulation of a fuzzy proposition: the work of primary classrooms may be analysable into at least four organizational strategies: classwork in one subject, groupwork in one 154 I Examples of case studies subject, groupwork in several subjects and individual work with the definitions given above. It is not organized as a guide for writing research proposals cf. Teaching practice has helped to sort out different kinds of organization. Formulating research questions is not easy work. Virtually all school institutions have written policies about research approval.
If the children didn't react as they expected the students were hesitant about changing their plans. Research Questions Identifying research questions is a critical step in research design because questions give direction to the study, limit the scope of the investigation, and provide a device for evaluating progress and satisfactory completion. Registration and individual silent reading. In short, it seeks to address and to illuminate a complex array of questions. . On one teaching practice I had a rowdy class.
Case study research in educational settings. Application forms and procedures will be different in different places, but the basic concern for protecting participants will be the same. The explicit audience is novice researchers. Each stage is underpinned by the concepts of trustworthiness and respect for persons. Honestly addressing the issues embedded in the following questions will lead some away from an unhappy experience with qualitative research and help others to establish a solid foundation on which to build successful qualitative research projects. Analyzing Qualitative Data 72 91 116 125 143 147 Doing Qualitative Data Analysis Typological Analysis Inductive Analysis Interpretive Analysis vii 150 152 161 179 Contents viii Political Analysis Polyvocal Analysis Computer-Assisted Analysis Criteria for Assessing Data Analysis Adequacy 5.
The exact methods for obtaining informed consent must be specified in this section, and copies of the actual forms to be used must be included. Ethnomethodologists use observation and interview techniques to capture commonsense understandings that their subjects apply to accomplish the taken-forgranted tasks of daily living. The next logical step is to identify what kind of qualitative research is to be done within the paradigm described. The gate keeper is the person who helps you gain access to the people you wish to study. Theory that is used to describe and explain the phenomena to be investigated—the substance of the study—is substantive theory. Deciding exactly who the participants will be is determined in part by the context and unit of analysis selected for study. What artifact data are needed for my study? In a school setting it might be a principal.
A second theme has revealed particular challenges and difficulties encountered when leadership is expected across a network of schools. Even books that focus on qualitative methods leave novices wondering how to do qualitative research. That is why I encourage new researchers to spend time clarifying their methodological and substantive theoretical bases as a first step in research design. The numbers in the table are the number of interview data items coded by myself and my research assistant as coming in the category specified. Competency Based Education and Training. But the use of case study in education has been comparatively recent; its specific relevance to education has not been explored to the same degree.
It is important to note that criticism here refers to art criticism rather than the neo-Marxist orientation of many critical theorists. The point of the example is that substantive theoretical grounding is necessary during the design phase, but that does not preclude the importance of continuing to explore alternative theoretical explanations as the study progresses and reports are written. They may get into their data and find that something really interesting is going on, but have insufficient depth in the data for making the case in a final report. Signed informed consent documents will be kept for the duration of the project and for at least three years thereafter at a location approved by the Institutional Review Board. I give students a hard time about the issue of what to call their work. Groupwork in more than one subject: Periods of time when different groups are engaged in different subjects, e.
Some of the best examples of contemporary ethnographies done in education are those of Peshkin e. Critical anthropologists of this period e. This article presents a case study of an elderly married couple living with dementia and explores how their relationship has continued to flourish. An explanatory case study presents data bearing on causeeffect relationships - explaining which causes produced which effects. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting.
Has the researcher unpacked his or her metaphysical assumptions? Has the researcher written a description that defines what qualitative research means to him or her? They should be able to tell participants what the purpose of the study is in words that are easily understood. Without this step, it is possible to start down a road that leads to a dead end. One of the purposes of this kind of inquiry is to raise the consciousness of those being oppressed because of historically situated structures tied to race, gender, and class. They seek to maintain an objective position in relation to the phenomena they are studying. He directs the children's mathematics by assignment cards that tell the children which pages of their books to work on. London: Department of Education and Science. I recommend all these qualities to new researchers.
Though data is largely recognized as a new form of capital in the digital era, little research has been done on how innovations related to finding health professionals and using health services are evolving in smart-city-based, preventive healthcare service delivery networks. The student who made that comment had been disappointed because she felt that despite her best efforts the children didn't seem to take a pride in their work, and their art work particularly was slapdash. Figuring Out What to Attend To. Sturman in his article in the second edition of Keeves's handbook was content to reiterate Stenhouse's four styles, but added a note that while ethnographic case study and action research case study are usually single site studies, evaluative case study and educational case study may involve either single or multiple sites. Just because the social action of interest is happening in a particular setting does not mean that that context is available for study. Case studies are, of course, studies of singularities and so the suggestion that findings from them may be applied more widely may seem somewhat contradictory, if not invalid. Several different kinds of educational case studies are identified, namely: theory-seeking, theory-testing, story-telling, picture-drawing, and evaluative case study and there are substantial examples of each of these.
Benefits It is not expected that all research will be risk free; but whatever risks are evident must be justified in terms of some benefit. Chapters are framed around the assumption that students and committee chairs could use the book to shape and assess dissertation research from unpacking assumptions and identifying research questions through to writing the final draft. The original book and elaborations that have followed e. If the researcher is Collecting Qualitative Data 75 acting as teacher, student, or administrator, stopping to make a record of what is happening may be impossible, and trying to remember without some kind of field note record will be very difficult. Few teachers know how other teachers teach. It should be expected that developing relationships with participants will take time and energy. The E-mail message field is required.