Must persons always be respected regardless of moral merit, or can recognition respect be forfeited, for example, by evildoing? Both kinds of self-respect include an engaged understanding of the implications of having worth for directing one's life and interacting with others. There are many types of respect. What attitudes and conduct express respect or disrespect for persons? Consider the well-mannered respect children should show parents and teachers, the great respect one might have for accomplished or morally exemplary individuals, the just respect people demand for their rights, the wary respect a prudent hiker has for rugged backcountry, the respect of standing for the judge entering a courtroom, and the basic respect many believe we owe people simply as people. This is the first anthology to bring together a selection of the most important contemporary philosophical essays on the nature and moral significance of self-respect. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics.
By contrast, we have appraisal respect which some call evaluative respect only for people, either as persons or in some role or activity, or for their qualities or achievements. Others hold that there are levels of respect such that while persons are owed maximal respect, other things may be due a lower level of respect that nevertheless rules out certain treatment, such as destroying them for trivial reasons. The person concerned must be capable of being self-conscious also in the sense that he can see himself as a being that can be seen by others, that can be assessed and judged. What does respect imply for issues such as assisted suicide, pornography, poverty, and political rights for cultural minorities? Are all humans owed respect? Respect thus differs from attitudes such as liking, which are based in the agent's interests. Representing a diversity of views, the essays illustrate the complexity of self-respect and explore its connections to such topics as personhood, dignity, rights, character, autonomy, integrity, identity, shame, justice, oppression and empowerment. Self-respect, important in its own right, involves due appreciation of one's morally significant worth: worth one has either as a person or in some position or activity recognition self-respect , or worth earned through the quality of one's character and conduct evaluative self-respect. Connections between self-respect and, for example, responsibility, self-identity, forgiveness, prostitution, oppression, and education are also of philosophical interest.
Some thinkers argue that the basis of morally required respect is wider than rationality and can be possessed by nonpersons. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Moreover, all persons are equal in dignity and moral status with other persons, so each has a right to respect from all as well as a duty to respect themselves. Kant's account prompts numerous questions. Evaluative self-respect is distinguishable from self-esteem. As such an agent he has an identity. Valuing respect can be akin to admiration, awe, or honor, but contrasts with valuing modes such as maximizing and using.
There is disagreement, however, about whether things other than persons, such as animals or the environment, are appropriate objects of respect. If there is self-consciousness there is a self to be conscious of. Most generally, respect is acknowledgement of an object as having importance, worth, authority, status, or power. The book demonstrates that self-respect is a formidable concern which goes to the very heart of both moral theory and moral life. This is the first anthology to bring together a selection of the most important contemporary philosophical essays on the nature and moral significance of self-respect.
Respecting oneself contrasts with, among other things, servility, acquiescence to disrespect, shamelessness, chronic irresponsibility, self-destruction, and self-contempt. The self is not unchanging, and it cannot be the object of consciousness in the way in which a physical object or event can be an object of consciousness. The Metaphysics of Morals 1797. Contributors: Bernard Boxill, Stephen L. Theorists also ask whether respect for persons is the foundation of all other moral duties and rights or simply one important moral consideration among others, and whether non-Kantian ethical approaches such as utilitarianism can accommodate the idea that persons are unconditionally owed respect.
Translated and edited by Mary Gregor. Respect also typically involves behaving in ways that show regard for the object or refraining from certain conduct out of respect for it. Some contend that remorseless evildoers warrant no respect; others hold that while they deserve punishment, they must still be respected as persons. A diversity of things, including laws, rights, hazards, opinions, social institutions and positions, nature, and people can be objects of different forms of recognition respect. Contributors: Bernard Boxill, Stephen L. Individuals can be owed recognition respect in virtue of their social position for example, as an elder or judge ; such respect involves conforming to conventions for appropriate behavior.
Dillon 2005 Citation styles Encyclopedia. Moody-Adams, John Rawls, Gabriele Taylor, Elizabeth Telfer, Laurence L. Thomas Keywords No keywords specified fix it Categories. This is the first anthology to bring together a selection of the most important contemporary philosophical essays on the nature and moral significance of self-respect. However, respect for persons commonly means recognition respect that all persons are morally owed solely because they are persons, regardless of social positions or individual qualities. Respect, Pluralism, and Justice: Kantian Perspectives.
Moody-Adams, John Rawls, Gabriele Taylor, Elizabeth Telfer, Laurence L. Humiliation, coercion, and enslavement are quintessential forms of disrespect; what positive measures e. A person, to be able to experience these emotions, needs a form of self-consciousness which is not just the capacity to ascribe experiences to himself, though this is of course a minimum requirement. As its Latin root respicere to look back indicates, to respect something is to pay attention or give consideration to it. In addition, some philosophers regard the feeling of reverential respect as a distinct third kind of respect. The person of integrity is sometimes seen as the person who possesses certain moral virtues.
Recognition respect is a disposition to take something appropriately into account in deliberations about action. What recognition respect involves in various cases depends on the reasons why objects of that sort should be taken into account. In A Theory of Justice 1971 John Rawls maintains that because the ability of individuals to respect themselves is significantly affected by their social and political circumstances and because self-respect is vital to individual well-being, justice requires that sociopolitical institutions support self-respect. Representing a diversity of views, the essays illustrate the complexity of self-respect and explore its connections to such topics as personhood, dignity, rights, character, autonomy, integrity, identity, shame, justice, oppression and empowerment. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia. The book demonstrates that self-respect is a formidable concern which goes to the very heart of both moral theory and moral life.