Inconel 718; selective laser melting; Microstructure; Fatigue crack growth; Fractography. Design guidelines were developed to address pipes used in applications involving cyclic mechanical loads. They are also packed with weak interfaces, which generate nonlinear deformations and channel cracks into powerful toughening configurations. The slip activity in suitably oriented grains manifests itself by parallel slip lines visible on the fracture surface. This allows for a fast estimation of the threshold frequency.
In particular the 'plateau' observed in constant stress testing was not observed in the décrémentai test. A portable ultrasonic fatigue instrument has been designed that can be installed at a high-brilliance X-ray beamline. In both cases, embrittlement by gaseous hydrogen initially requires adsorption of hydrogen gas and formation of atomic hydrogen on the surface of the steel, followed by stress-assisted diffusion to the region of high triaxial stress, such as the region just ahead of a notch or crack tip see. The specimens were notched with a band saw and then the tip sharpened by sliding a sharp blade across the root of the notch. To carry out fatigue tests in fuels an explosion protected specimen chamber is required due to safety reasons. The gas additive could either block adsorption of hydrogen onto the steel surface, or it could displace hydrogen atoms that had already been adsorbed.
The effect of variation of stress frequency on fatigue crack propagation in 99. The techniques of physical acoustics have been applied in determining the elastic properties and internal friction of polycrystal and single crystal metals, glasses, nonmetallic crystals, high polymer materials, and ceramics. The crack propagation curves and the crack propagation threshold were compared with literature data describing the behavior of conventionally manufactured material. In a threshold region a significant shift in the data of the fatigue crack propagation rate can be observed. However, between steps, cycling at 2 × 10-3 to saturation was always done to reestablish the initial cell structure. Experimental results on low cycle fatigue, fatigue crack propagation and substructures. Fractographic analyses indicate that fatigue cracks leading to failure initiate at internal porosity in approximately 75% of tests and at the as-molded surface in the remainder of tests.
The loading histories of aircrafts and rockets are complex and the components are exposed to combined loading conditions with high numbers of high-frequency cycles superimposed to lower-frequency carrier vibrations. Fractographic studies indicate that, in general, longer fatigue lifetimes are associated with smaller fracture initiation sites. The cyclic stress intensity range Δ K is defined as the maximum stress intensity per cycle K max minus the minimum stress intensity per cycle K min. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: 1. The cyclic stress-strain curve associated with the small step test followed that observed in constant stress testing see Part I , but again with differences. The effect of strain cycling at 77 K has also been studied. Some of them are significantly opened.
The fatigue growth tests were started at load amplitudes resulting in initiation of a fatigue crack from the starting chevron notch after some hundreds of thousand cycles. R-values different from -1 can be obtained by attaching the specimen´s end to the coupling piece of a mechanical or a servohydraulic testing equipment. But for an accurate application of this technique it is necessary to improve the testing systems and also the determination of the dynamic cyclic stress intensity range, ΔK. Numerous round globules could be seen at fibril separation points. They have been used as tools in investigating such solid state phenomena as grain and domain boundary effects in metals and ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials, in the diffusion of atoms, molecules and vacancies through a solid, in the motion of imperfections such as dislocations and have even detected an interaction between the lattice sound vibrations and free electrons in metals at low temperatures. Thus, research on this field is needed not only because it may lead to new potential applications of metals, but also because predictability of the fatigue response may be greatly enhanced. The final product fabricated by localized melting and solidification of gas atomized Inconel 718 powder is strongly influenced by process parameters like the laser power and the beam diameter, scanning parameters and, indeed, the starting material powder.
Furthermore, no fish-eye like crack-growth morphology was seen on the fracture surfaces. No evidence of birefringence zone was observed in either material under cross-polarized light as shown in Figs, 11b and e. The critical stresses for fatigue failure in the presence of corrosion pits can be calculated using a methodology that was already successfully applied to 12% Cr steam turbine blade steel. Conventionally manufactured Inconel 718 is frequently used for high temperature applications up to 700 °C as jet engine and high-speed airframe parts, gas turbines, exhaust manifolds, turbochargers, etc. The Nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 powder has the nominal chemical composition given in tab. These microfibrils were pulled from the matrix, which then results in their alignment in a direction parallel to the applied stress. Locally it differs a lot from the macroscopic direction.
These results meant that the double-melted steel showed superior gigacycle fatigue properties to the single-melted steel when the enlarged specimens were used in the fatigue tests, while the superiority was invisible when conventional specimens were used. Equation 1 , although approximate can give useful insights to specimen design. The results of the analysis may indicate that part replacement is necessary. As a result of these incidents, pipe quality was improved and a strict regulation of design and installation practices was imposed. Comparison of micrographs in Figs.
Accordingly, the characterization of the viscoelastic response of a material offers an alternative method for analysing its microstructure and ultimately its fatigue behaviour. This paper compares the fatigue behaviour of a quenched and tempered steel 50CrMo4 in two different tempered conditions investigated at low frequencies f 105 cycles to fracture. Baseline results for fatigue crack growth rates in hydrogen and nitrogen for X42 and X70 alloys at gas pressures of 6. The reason for the higher bridging capability in specimens containing larger notches is that less fibres are broken or damaged in the notch vicinity. Here, the craze structure was identified by the features of broken fibrils and voids. All these investigations attributed the enhancement of the fatigue strength for the treated specimens or components to the grain refinement and the compressive residual stress caused by surface strengthening treatment. ΔK curves can be obtained, and especially endurance limit and ΔK thresholds can be obtained in a highly time-saving way.