Theoreticalanalyses of small-scale bridging of crack surfaces by elastic-ideally plastic springs are presented and applied to the study of the fracture toughness of ceramics reinforced by small particles. Both strain life and stress life parameters are given, with monotonic properties added for the reference, and statistical parameters and estimates where applicable. A primary requirement for materials to be used in gas turbine engine discs is satisfactory resistance to crack growth resistance in the 650 to 760°C range. Under such conditions, we suggest that another mechanism, whose stress dependence is provided through the net section stress, becomes active, i. At high rates, it is expected that nearly plane-stress conditions should prevail and a lower value of α was selected.
Those discussed above are the most important reasons why the fatigue crack growth rate increases after long-time aging. For intermediate rates, α was varied linearly with the logarithm of crack growth rate. Place, publisher, year, edition, pagesLinköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The near-tip residual stresses must be overcome by the external load, thereby instigating a growth threshold, K th, for the onset of time-dependent crack growth. Specimens were subjected to 90 s hold-times at 550 degrees C and 650 degrees C.
This has been demonstrated in binary Nb—Si, ternary Nb—Ti—Si, and quaternary Nb—Ti—Hf—Si composites, but not in higher order systems. Engineering properties of concern were typically minimum second stage creep rates or times to reach some amount of deformation. Optimising grain boundary character and gamma' distribution should yield the best alloy design strategy for high temperature fatigue performance in turbine discs. The inspections should be applied throughout the service life of the vehicle. Optimising grain boundary character and distribution should yield the best alloy design strategy for high temperature fatigue performance in turbine discs. The interested reader is recommended to consult Swift 1983 and Gallagher et al.
It is assumed that the cavities grow by power law creep in the elastic crack tip stress field. Optimising grain boundary character and gamma' distribution should yield the best alloy design strategy for high temperature fatigue performance in turbine discs. These factors are related to the chemical composition and underlying microstructure for all currently-used product forms i. Although the location of the constraint-loss regime in terms of rates and the values of α at these rates were selected by trial-and-error, they are consistent with global constraint values calculated from 3D finite-element analyses Newman et al. However, such processes have been generally observed during fatigue at much higher temperatures in similar systems, e. Once formed, these corrosion pits can serve as stress concentration sites where fatigue cracks can initiate and propagate to failure under subsequent cyclic loading.
Multi-site crack initiation occurred in the notch root. Three distinct processes of intergranular embrittlement involving oxidation reactions have been confirmed experimentally. This was attributed to the suppression of solid-solution of carbides during welding. To maintain this compatibility, load is transferred from the cracked metal sheet into the intact metal sheet fibre bridging mechanism , thus reducing crack opening and increasing the strain in the fibre layer. A Δ K eff th threshold was also selected as 0. Attempts to reduce the sensitivity to time dependent cracking based on chemistry chromium level or trace element addition , microstructure control using thermal—mechanical treatment or controlled cooling , or reversal of environmental embrittlement, are all considered. Engineered systems for high temperature service are often subjected to cyclic loads with dwell times at maximum load that can exacerbate fatigue damage evolution through creep and environment enhanced crack growth.
Total Materia remains the only tool which will be used for this purpose. At the same time, any complications due to closure are removed by careful measurement of closure levels for each condition. The dependence of toughening on particle size, concentration, strength, and ductility is explored, and relations between toughening and bridge length at fracture are given. In the model, the propagation of a grain boundary crack is controlled by the plastic growth of cavities located in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload.
An assessment of the effects of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth in a turbine disc nickel-base superalloy at 650 °C in air is presented. The natural initiation and growth of short cracks in Inconel®718 U-notch specimens has been studied at 600°C in air. Performance improvements can be achieved through the combination of clean melting technology, to reduce the defect size, and a new generation of high-strength superalloys with fatigue-cracking resistance. The newly formed crack flanks in the metal layers quickly initiate interface delaminations, allowing the delamination to grow in the same direction as the crack. To date, the grain-boundary engineering approach has been shown to be particularly successful in promoting fracture resistance in specific cases, notably in the context of intergranular stress-corrosion cracking and creep.
Starting from a significant knowledge base of mechanical and microstructural behaviour established from standard tests of the equiaxed and single crystal superalloys, creep-fatigue tests have been performed to evaluate how the two damage conditions develop together. Advanced Ni-based superalloys for aero-engine disk applications can experience multiple damage mechanisms that include oxidation, creep and stress corrosion in additional to cycle-dependent fatigue crack initiation and growth. Reference has already been made to the effects of Hf on the potential creep properties of ferritic high creep strength alloys. Crack initiation in single crystal turbine blade alloys is dominated by interdendritic porosity with oxidation processes affecting initiation position. The methodology of accessing and analysing the crack tip region is shown. This is supported by observations of transgranular fracture in vacuum and intergranular fracture in air. Early studies were necessarily empirical but became more focused by progressively controlling parameters that led to variable results.
Stage I cracking has been promoted by mixed-mode loading, plane stress, and vacuum conditions; increasing the test temperature to 600 °C does not suppress stage I crack growth in vacuum. Dwell-times have been shown to give rise to increased crack propagation rates in superalloys at elevated temperatures. This micromechanical framework provides the basis for developing appropriate predictive models for the time-dependent crack growth thresholds associated with several damage processes, including 1 oxidation-assisted intergranular crack growth, 2 K-controlled creep crack growth along an intergranular path, and 3 stress corrosion cracking. Nickel based superalloys are critical to the safe operation of many energy conversion systems operating at high temperatures. Surface short crack growth rates in the notch root of polished specimens were measured using an acetate replica technique.
In the definition of relevant load and stress spectra, experimental truncation tests of the scarce extreme loads should be performed to obtain a spectrum that minimizes crack growth life for analysis. To deliver an efficient finite element procedure to predict short crack growth, with full validation against the experimental data, for end users. A one-to-one correspondence between microstructure and a given type of damage is developed using various electron-optical techniques to serve as a guide in interpreting the microstructures of damaged blades. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. According to the scanning electron microscope observations, the failure of the notched specimens strongly depends on the anisotropy microstructures.