One limitation of the present model is the focus on the Big Five as a measure of personality traits.
The developers mainly researched the Big Five model and how the five broad factors are compatible with the 25 scales of the PID-5 for the DSM-5.
Chapter 7: Klein - Object Relations• there was a higher negative penalty for greater agreeableness in women, as well as a higher positive reward for greater conscientiousness.
It has been researched across many populations and cultures and continues to be the most widely accepted theory of personality today.
These overlapping scales were later further analyzed by Guilford et al.
In a study conducted among 169 participants in leadership positions in a variety of professions, individuals were asked to take a personality test and have two evaluations completed by directly supervised subordinates.