The treaty recognized the region now corresponding to Syria and Lebanon, where France had long-standing economic and cultural interests, as part of a future French sphere, and the region of Mesopotamia now Iraq as part of a future British sphere. Unlike the other Middle East mandates, the -approved agreement for Palestine did not cite self-determination as a long-term goal for the territory's indigenous inhabitants, who were overwhelmingly Muslim and Christian Arabs. The third objective was related to what nineteenth-century observers called the —that is, the challenge of preserving the Ottoman Empire in order to avoid inflaming both competition between the Great Powers and the generally contentious atmosphere created by Western imperial expansion. In 1932 Britain granted Iraq a form of official, yet nominal independence: it was nominal because Britain reserved control over Iraq's military and communications and retained a major share in Iraq's burgeoning oil industry. As early as 1580, English merchants like their Venetian, French, and other European counterparts secured formal commercial privileges for trading in the Ottoman Empire and later gained comparable rights in Iran.
Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Years later, the Islamic Revolution of 1978—1979 unseated Mohammed Reza Shah and brought to power the Ayatollah Khomeini, whose anti-Western message was a response to Iran's modern history of Western imperialism. In short, the same forces in the global economy that had been working to Europe's advantage since the sixteenth century now began to work to the detriment of both the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Iran, which lacked the wherewithal and internal coherence to stave off military, territorial, and economic challenges to their sovereignty. More than any other event, the Suez Crisis showed that the and the were displacing Britain and France as the Great Powers in the region. A desire to protect the Suez route influenced Britain's decision to annex Aden now part of Yemen , at the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, in 1839. However, the date of retrieval is often important.
Determined to secure revenues to fund the extension of the Aswan Dam, Egypt's president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, declared the nationalization—that is, the Egyptian government seizure—of the Suez Canal, which a British-French consortium had long owned and operated for the sake of the tolls that ships paid to go through it. Iran suffered under the burdens of wartime requisitioning and in 1918—1919 faced a massive famine that killed as much as one quarter of the population. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. In the long run, Britain was arguably the most important of these powers in shaping the region's political destiny. The last enclaves of British colonial influence in the Middle East were in the Gulf region. At its peak in the seventeenth century, and before the onset of the economic and territorial contraction that accompanied the rise of Western imperialism in the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire ruled over a vast multicultural domain in southeastern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa as far west as Algeria.
Egyptian Textiles and British Capital, 1930—1956. The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspectives. Responding to Nasser's maneuver, Britain and France, in alliance with Israel, declared war on Egypt. In return Britain secured long-staple cotton from Egypt and other food and animal products such as dates, barley, and leather. Bristling against a long record of British, French, and Russian interference in its affairs, Ottoman authorities in Istanbul joined forces with Germany and the , lining up against Britain and the Allies.
Britain's vested interests in the Ottoman Empire also influenced its policies toward Egypt in the early twentieth century. When Britain tried to prevent Egyptian nationalist leaders from airing their views at the Paris Peace Conference, a popular nationalist revolt broke out. Concerned that France would block British access to the eastern Mediterranean and thereby threaten critical trade routes to India, the British navy collaborated with Ottoman authorities to evict French troops from Egypt. First, Britain invited Faisal Sharif Husayn's son, who had been ousted from the leadership of a nascent Arab Kingdom in Damascus by the French to become king of British-mandated Iraq in 1921—thus creating the Hashimite Kingdom of Iraq, which lasted until a violent leftist coup in 1958. By the end of the eighteenth century, when Britain stood poised to expand its influence in the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire had already begun to suffer military losses to Austria, Russia, and France and to lose territories along its fringes, for example, in Hungary and the Crimea. A History of the Modern Middle East.
British Colonialism, Historians date the beginning of British imperialism in the to 1798, the year Napoléon invaded Egypt. The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence Deeply concerned by the Ottoman discourses that portrayed the war as a jihad, and fearful lest Muslims throughout the wider rise up to support the Ottoman cause and thereby the , British leaders made extra efforts to cultivate wartime alliances with Muslim dignitaries who could offset the Ottoman bid for Muslim support. This event, in turn, had a domino effect, and set off the headlong rush for territory that brought nine-tenths of the African continent under European control by 1898 the year when Britain, working jointly with Egyptian forces, conquered the Sudan. Second, and also in 1921, Britain invited Abdallah, another son of Sharif Husayn, to become emir of Transjordan, an arid and thinly populated region that Britain had gained with the Palestine mandate—but an area that was excluded from the sphere of Zionist settlement. Based on the premise that the Allied Powers would win the war, the Sykes-Picot Agreement reflected France and Britain's effort to divide the Arab Middle East amicably, into spheres of influence that would come into effect after the war.
The Holocaust-in-progress steeled the resolve of Zionists in Palestine, who had long supported a program to create not only a Jewish homeland as the Balfour Declaration had intimated in 1918 , but also a full-fledged Jewish state. The San Remo Conference formalized these spheres of influence by defining them as mandates, a term that served as a euphemism for colonial control. . In the 1870s Ottoman policymakers in Istanbul, and their counterparts under the leadership of Khedive Ismail the grandson of Muhammad Ali in Egypt, began to take out loans from French and British businesses for the sake of pursuing westernizing, modernizing reforms. Known as the qUrabi Rebillion—after the military officer, Ahmed qUrabi, who emerged to lead it—this uprising prompted deep concern among Britons, who feared that instability in Egypt could threaten the Suez Canal—the British imperial life-line to India—as well as local British investments. Yet it is important to note that Britons in the Middle East not only included government officials but also missionaries, travelers, soldiers, merchants, archaeologists, and many others—that is, a diverse group of historical actors who exerted cultural, political, and economic influences in their own right. It awarded the Ottoman region of Thrace to Greece and provided for French and Italian interests in railways and ; it also reasserted British and French control over the region's finances because the empire's late nineteenth-century debts were still on the books.
Kuwait, for example, gained independence in 1961, while Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States later called the gained independence in 1971. Series B, Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East, 1918—1939. Robinson, Ronald, and John Gallagher. Leiden, Netherlands; Boston: Brill, 2004. In other words, Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman underling, was trying to take over the empire from within, for the sake of building his own empire centered in Egypt. Plans for Palestine were left somewhat vague with the treaty suggesting some kind of international administration.
A few hours later the Jewish community proclaimed the independence of the new state of Israel. The Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret wartime treaty signed in 1916 between Britain and France; it was named after its chief negotiators, Sir Mark Sykes of Britain and Georges Picot of France. Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Instead, Britain and Russia vied to exert their influence in Iran politically, by supplying military and foreign policy advisors, and economically, by securing trade privileges and concessions pertaining to commodities and services. To continue shopping at Indigo. In 1936 the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty gave Egypt a greater degree of autonomy—for example, by providing for a phased abolition of the capitulatory privileges that foreigners had enjoyed in Egypt. The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence consisted of a series of ten letters exchanged between Sir Henry McMahon, the British High Commissioner in Egypt, and Sharif Husayn in 1915 and 1916.