In Jaap van Marle ed. This state of affairs is exacerbated by substantial disagreement about the procedures that should be applied to promote insights into the language faculty. For another, the recognition of alternating rhythm as a determinant not only in the phonology of a language, but also in its morphology and syntax permits numerous generalizations and considerably simplifies the task of describing grammatical regularities and tendencies, as will be shown in the empirical main part of the present study Chapters 4 and 5. As a result, we obtain a much more complex picture of the evolution of the form worser in the course of four centuries. What unifies the phenomena assembled here besides their focus on attributive structures is their susceptibility to the influence of the preference for rhythmic alternation, which will be at the centre of the discussion. These notions are in apparent contradiction to the hypothesized universality of linguistic rhythm, but recent research has been able to reconcile the discrepancies up to a certain point.
Here, I review characteristics of existing studies, including methods of data collection, geographic locales investigated, informant characteristics sex, age, and socioeconomic status , properties of the data number of speakers, tokens, etc. The reason is that the phonological representation can be stored by a process of subvocal rehearsal. After exclusion of the three doublets, the total number of words runs to over 10 million. She has been a most assiduous and considerate advisor and deserves my heartfelt thanks. The selection 48 Methodology of texts that enter our analyses is thus not motivated by aims such as linguistic representativity, but by their importance in literary history. In contrast, grammatical constructions outside of attributive structures, for instance adverbials and verbal constructions, while being likewise susceptible to effects of the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation, form less integrated wholes and their rhythmic structures are more diverse. Unless stated otherwise, the chi-square tests compare the contexts pairwise.
AlIen 1975: 78; Bolinger 1986a: 2122; see furthermore lones 1969: 245; Abercrombie 1967: 96; Ladefoged 1982: 225. The determinant of grammatical variation foregrounded in the following chapters is assumed to play an equally fundamental role in language production and perception. The present reading experiments examine the influence of stress-based linguistic rhythm on the resolution of local lexical-syntactic ambiguities in German. Two kinds of vowels, two kinds of rhythm. Berg 1998: 79; Frisch 2004: 354. And how are they different? We are thus dealing with a more or less contrived usage that does not necessarily mirror the actual spoken usage of the authors.
Martin, dieses Buch gehort dir. An introduction to English prosody. By contrast, nouns only take the -ssuffix for the plural and the possessive, which is syllabic only after sibilants. Examples of stress-shifting premodifiers, all of which have final stress in their so-called citation forms, are adjectives like overhead, robust, prefixed items like misspelt, untied, compounds like clear-cut, far-away, half-asleep, and prenominally used nouns like afternoon, farewell, Chinese, Tennessee, New York cf. It has been pointed out that in linguistics, there is no 6 Introduction way around quantitative empirical data, which have the power to support or contradict claims that derive from linguistic theory, and theory should strive to reflect the processes of language production and perception at least to some degree cf. McQueen, Otake, and Cutler 2001: 103-104. Bolinger 1965c: 82-83; 1980b: 12; 1981: 24; 1986b: 40--41; Couper-Kuhlen 1986: 35; Warren 1999: 158.
In the absence of any spoken corpora of earlier forms of English, this type of written-to-be-spoken language is as close as one can get to the colloquial usage of the day. The rhythmic typology introduced in this section makes no claims about the role played by the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation in rhythmically different languages, but it leads us to expect certain differences in the treatment of stress clashes and lapses. A Middle English syntax, part I, Parts of speech. Thus, the interval between the first two stressed syllables in sentences 6a--e ideally takes the same amount of time, irrespective of the number of unstressed syllables it contains Kelly and Bock 1988: 189; cf. It should, however, be noted that these rules are not considered here, as they were originally conceived, as procedures transforming an input constellation into an output constellation.
However, the present work is conceived primarily as a contribution to the grammatical description of earlier and present-day forms of English - a fact that is mirrored in the greater weight given to the empirical studies in comparison to theoretical considerations. Colonial lag, colonial innovation or simply language change? In formal grammars, functional explanations making reference to performance factors are not permitted. Example 5 is also attributive, but the head noun is elided. Thus, stress patterns of loanwords have shown a tendency to assimilate to the native pattern of English cf. The state afthe art 3 For the sake of exposition, this section tackles the state of the art from two opposite angles.
This includes a discussion of the hypothesized universality of rhythm section 2. Before we turn our backs on the analysis of versified language for the remainder of this book, a quick glance at Tarlinskaya's 1984: 16,23 findings can help us focus our attention in the study of prose corpora. I also thankfully acknowledge the efforts of an anonymous reviewer, which prevented me from getting lost in too much detail and redirected my attention to the essentials. What is more, many authors e. The present discussion of prosodic features is restricted to a principle that is relatively basic and clearly circumscribed, namely the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation. As far as the comparison between distributions of certain characteristics in different sets of examples is concerned, this test is the most commonly used not only in corpus linguistics.
That means that the duration of syllables is compensatorily adjusted: sequences of unstressed syllables are crushed together, while stressed syllables that are not flanked by unstressed ones are drawn out cf. April morning, December night, but? In the extra-linguistic domain, it has been shown that listeners tend to perceive minimally different intervals as equal, while at the same time maximizing more substantial differences cf. Keele 1986: 35; lackendoff 2000: 7, 21. This position has not found much acclaim beyond the generative school cf. The reason why worser does not occur in cases where a non-attributive comparative is followed by a stressed syllable can only be the scarcity of such cases. Therefore, the claims made in this work are restricted to the English language and the ways it implements rhythmic alternation.