Drought and the incursion of domestic livestock and exotic species such as horses into the Great Plains all threatened the Western ecosystem, which was further destabilized as interactions between Native Americans and Euroamericans created new types of hunters in both cultures: mounted Indian nomads and white commercial hide hunters. Retaliation is also prohibited by university policy. Isenberg then discusses the genesis of the Plains Indians. The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Isenberg has found an impressive array of sources for his history.
The Nature of Cities: Culture, Landscape, and Urban Space Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press, 2006. . Isenberg points out that the trade in robes had a dramatic effect on Native social structure. It has a narrative that sweeps the reader through the two hundred pages quickly. This would have put the annual take right around 20% - or just about the maximum yield. Cultural and ecological interactions created new types of bison hunters on both sides of the encounter: mounted Indian nomads and Euroamerican industrial hidemen. Isenberg starts with a discussion of the shortgrass prairie environment.
Wyatt Earp: A Vigilante Life New York: Hill and Wang, 2013. He may not go quite far enough here; Bison bison seems to have evolved from its ancestor Bison antiquus within the last 10ky or so and the shortgrass prairie is also a post-glacial ecosystem; thus there were people in North American before either The Great Plains or the modern bison. In this wide-ranging, interdisciplinary study, Andrew C. The nomadic groups were affected too, of course, but avoided some of the devastation by not being concentrated in villages. Isenberg argues that the cultural and ecological encounter between Native Americans and Euroamericans in the Great Plains was the central cause of the near-extinction of the bison.
The Santa Fe Railroad shipped 1. The tribes acquired horses between about 1730 and 1830; for the Sioux, for example, the first record of horses in datable pictographs is from 1781. In the early twentieth century, nostalgia about the very cultural strife which first threatened the bison became, ironically, an important impetus to its preservation. Beginning around 1830 or so, Indians began bringing an average of 100000 buffalo robes per year to trading posts. This book will prove valuable to the academic specialist, the student, and the general public. However, when Euro-American trade goods became available, the natives stopped hunting just for sustenance and began hunting for hides.
Is that really the most current work on the topic? In the early twentieth century, nostalgia about the very cultural strife that first threatened the bison became, ironically, an important impetus to its preservation. The Destruction of the Bison, first published in 2000, explains the decline of the North American bison population from an estimated 30 million in 1800 to fewer than a thousand a century later. In this wide-ranging, interdisciplinary study, Andrew C. Isenberg argues that the cultural and ecological encounter between Native Americans and Euroamericans in the Great Plains was the central cause of the near-extinction of the bison. Hunting was on foot, and the usual method was to stampede a bison herd off a cliff or into a dead-end canyon; this depended on finding a bison herd that was close enough to village that the hunters could reach it in a reasonable time, small enough to surround and force toward the trap, and having a trap available at all. This all changed with the arrival of the horse.
About the same time, European diseases began showing up in native populations, with smallpox as the big killer. In 1889, a survey counted 25 bison in the Texas Panhandle; 20 in Colorado; 36 in Montana, and 200 in Yellowstone National Park. Cultural and ecological interactions created new types of bison hunters on both sides of the encounter: mounted Indian nomads and Euroamerican industrial hidemen. Mining California: An Ecological History New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Together with environmental pressures these hunters nearly extinguished the bison. That being said, it was clearly commercial hunting by American riflemen in the 1870s that doomed the bison.
The Sioux, for example, only declined by about 9% in the same period. Isenberg argues that the cultural and ecological encounter between Native Americans and Euroamericans in the Great Plains was the central cause of the near extinction of the bison. The University of Kansas on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression, and genetic information in the university's programs and activities. Illustrations are from various contemporary sources; there are a lot of footnotes but no bibliography; instead all references are given in the footnotes. Author Andrew Isenberg is a history professor at Princeton; the book is more of a history than an ecological study. Isenberg also makes the point that Bison bison was the last survivor with the minor exception of pronghorns of a host of Pleistocene North American grazing animals. The Republican Reversal: Conservatives and the Environment from Nixon to Trump Cambridge, Ma.
The Destruction of Bison would be a good choice for academic libraries as well as for many public library collections. Isenberg appreciates the dynamism of culture, economy, and environment on the Plains. In this wide-ranging, interdisciplinary study, Andrew C. The book is, simply, an engrossing history. The diseases devastated sedentary or semisedentary native populations, such as the Mandan, Pawnee, and Hidatsa; population decline is estimated at around 80% between 1780-1880.
McNeill Berkeley: University of California Press, 2017 , 398-412. In the environmental version, North American was the Earthly Paradise with Noble Savages living in perpetual harmony with Nature until 1492. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920 New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Wells New York: Routledge, 2018 , 333-345. Together with environmental pressures, these hunters nearly extinguished the bison. His treatment of Indian experiences, though overgeneralized, is still subtle and complex. I gather from cursory reading that Native American population figures are highly political; maybe these are the most current numbers before it became such a charged issue.
As enviornmental history, the book is extremely satisfying. Series Title: Responsibility: Andrew C. Mounted hunters could follow the bison, rather than waiting for bison to come to them, could enter a herd and kill animals with less danger to themselves, and could pack out much larger quantities of meat. What anthropological evidence exists from before the robe trade took off suggests polygyny was relatively rare, but it increased dramatically afterward; as a result the pattern of intertribal warfare also changed, with raids made for women rather than horses. The E-mail message field is required. Bison could, and did, live in other environments but were more efficient than any of their competitors on shortgrass prairie. This is a compact, scholarly work.