On the other hand, there is the parameter of discursive independence, according to which a dependent clause can either form one single focus domain with its main clause, or function independently of the focus domain of its main clause. This paper analyzes a pattern of epistemic marking that is found in several Paman Pama-Nyungan languages of Cape York Peninsula, in the north-east of Australia. Verstraete, J-C 2004 Initial and final position for adverbial clauses in English: The constructional basis of the discursive and syntactic differences. The loss of morphological case inflection in French raises the question whether the category of the genitive is still a relevant notion. The feature they share with complement clauses is that unlike other adverbial clauses they specify the mental state of some participant in the main clause, typically the agent.
Journal of Pragmatics 33 10 : 1505-1528. It is argued that the distinction between integrated and non-integrated intonation for dependent clauses, which is often used as an important parameter in typologies of clause combining mechanisms, is not a unitary phenomenon. Most importantly, it proposes two new pathways from premodal to dynamic modal meaning, one followed by essential and vital, and one followed by crucial and critical. Impersonal Constructions: A Cross-linguistic Perspective. Department of Linguistics, University of Leuven.
As an alternative, we will show that elaborative constructions can be dealt with much more naturally in terms of an existing model of dependency shift in clause combining, like the subordinate—coordinate shifts observed for many other types of subordinators. From a typological perspective, it adds to the inventory of direct lexical sources for epistemic modality that have been identified in the literature. On the other hand, it is also shown that the presence of such a mental state relation is crosslinguistically reflected in the formal make-up of the three construction types, specifically in the use of mood markers in the dependent clause, and in the use of conjunctions that are shared with the domain of represented speech. Definitions of genitives typically start out from the notion of an inflectional marker, often suffixal, that marks dependency relations of a noun phrase with respect to another noun phrase and conveys possessive meaning. Verstraete, J-C 2018 Lamalamic root structure: Erosion and expansion. This paper investigates a system of composite mood marking in the non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia, which generally mark modal meanings through combinations of prefixes and suffixes of the finite verb. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
More generally, this is used as a case study to argue that cross-linguistic studies of grammaticalization should take into account the wider grammatical system in which developments take place, and focus on the morphosyntactic details of the path leading to the grammatical target, in addition to semantic and pragmatic relations between source and target. The volume contains both general surveys of genitives and case studies of the semantics, pragmatics and historical development of specific genitive constructions. The central factor in this semiotic explanation is the performative versus non-performative status of the modals, which can explain their divergent behavior with respect to tense, interrogation, and conditionality. The analysis shows how Lamalamic roots are shaped diachronically by processes of erosion and expansion, leading to root forms that are unusual by Australian standards. Working papers Verstraete, J-C 2004 The role of mood marking in complex sentences: A case study of Australian languages. We first discuss a number of problems that emerge from the literature, such as the conflicting views on the nature of subjectivity, and the general vagueness of the way speaker-involvement is defined in order to detect subjectivity. Preprints of the Department of Linguistics 215.
Belgian Essays on Language and Literature 119-130. The pattern is also interesting from an areal perspective, because it is attested in five languages from three different subgroups of Paman, which neighbor each other geographically and which are linked by recurrent patterns of personal multilingualism. Verstraete, J-C 2005 Scalar quantity implicatures and the interpretation of modality: Problems in the deontic domain. Verstraete, J-C 2011 Experienced action constructions in Umpithamu: Involuntary experience, from bodily processes to externally instigated actions. This paper deals with the evolution of the genitive case from Latin to Old and Middle French, and from Middle French to Modern French.
From a more general perspective, we show that insubordinate constructions provide a fresh perspective on the analysis of modality and evaluation, with semantic parameters that are not found in more typical exponents like modal verbs. In addition, it is also shown that this approach can provide descriptive corrections to a number of traditional views, such as the assumed general correlation between final position and local function, and the apparently conflicting definitions of subordination in terms of relative prominence and integration. This list is based on CrossRef data as of 17 february 2019. Please note that it may not be complete. The fifth volume of the series Case and Grammatical Relations across Languages, devoted to the genitive construction in Indo-European languages Slavic: Russian; Germanic: German and Swedish; Romance: French and Romanian and languages belonging to other branches Niger-Congo: Bantu; Uralic, Finnic: Finnish, Andic, Northern-Caucasian: Northern Akhvakh , shows the ample cross-linguistic variation with respect to meaning, morphology syntax and even informational structure. Verstraete, J-C 2005 Two types of coordination in clause combining. Grammar in the construction of a key historical narrative in Umpithamu.
The analysis of coordination proposed here is functionally based on the notion of illocutionary force and formally reflected in the behavior of the basic clause types declarative—imperative—interrogative in the clauses that make up the coordinate construction. Verstraete, J-C 2016 A Dictionary of Mbarrumbathama. Abstract : This volume, the fifth in the series Case and Grammatical Relations across Languages, is devoted to genitive constructions in a range of Indo-European languages Russian, French, Romanian, German and Swedish , as well as Finnish, Bantu languages and Northern Akhvakh Northeast Caucasian. The articles investigate developments of such phenomena as modal auxiliaries, attitudinal markers, V1-conditionals, nominalizers, and pronouns, using data from a wide range of languages and in some cases from diachronic corpora. They differ in more respects than just modal strength, and this disrupts the implicature mechanism that works well for the weaker and stronger degrees of epistemic modality. Verstraete, J-C 2004 Grounding and headedness in the noun phrase.
Verstraete, J-C 2003 Book notice on David McNeill ed. Verstraete, J-C 2008 The status of purpose, reason and intended endpoint in the typology of complex sentences. The authors argue that although semantic factors sometimes condition genitive marking, the Russian genitive is not sensitive to the thematic properties of the head and is therefore closer to the structural cases, assigned on purely configurational grounds. On the basis of these findings about the marking of counterfactuality, we argue that counterfactuality typically originates as a semanticization of pragmatic information, more specifically an implicature derived from the compositional meaning of a combination of a modal element and a past, perfect or perfective element. This collective volume focuses on the crucial role of formal evidence in recognizing and explaining instances of grammaticalization. Verstraete, J-C 2006 The nature of irreality in the past domain: Evidence from past intentional constructions in Australian languages. This article approaches common topics in the diachronic literature on modal categories from the perspective of adjectives.
It is argued that the problems with deontic modality are due to the fact that expressions of permission and obligation are different on two dimensions: they do not just express weaker and stronger commitment to desirability on the part of some authority, but they also carry different presuppositions about the willingness of the modal agent the person who is allowed or obliged to do something to carry out the action in question. Contrary to popular belief, neither past tense nor imperfective aspect is a universal feature in the combinations of markers used to signal counterfactuality: the only type of element that is found in every combination is a modal element marking some type of potentiality, which can be combined i with past-tense markers, ii with a combination of past tense and aspectual perfect or perfective markers, or iii just with aspectual markers. Perhaps more important, it provided preliminary evidence of the hypothesized relationship between lexical organization and phonological learning on par with the observed relationship between lexical structure and phonological learning. It will be of interest to scholars and students in syntax, semantics, morphology, typology, and historical linguistics. On the basis of a detailed study of the extent of these effects in specific languages, it is shown that they are not always directly related to animacy, but can also be related to factors that are typically but not exclusively associated with animacy, like unusual instigation and unusual affectedness. Finally, this study makes it clear that the mechanisms driving the various semantic changes are not new, but rather have proved useful in explaining a varied set of developments. Previous work on mood in complex sentences has shown that presence of mood marking in one of the component clauses tends to correlate with a feature of non-actualization on the level of the complex sentence.
Mbarrumbathama is a clan-named variety of Lamalama, a language of Cape York Peninsula, in the northeast of Australia. Verstraete, J-C 2012 Contact-induced restructuring of pronominal morphosyntax in Umpithamu Cape York Peninsula, Australia. First, the analysis proposes an analogy-based mechanism to explain loss of initial vowels, which complements the classic account in terms of gradual initial weakening. On a micro-structural level, it is shown how a rare system of case marking is used by the narrator to construe white—Aboriginal interactions as events in which the Aboriginal participants experience an extreme lack of control. It refines and completes previous studies, in that it provides a systematic corpus study of all factors described in the existing literature and offers a thorough analysis of factors that may hamper genitive variation.