L'Afrique et la crise de 1930. The government could be proud of its economic success, but the peasants suffered. The Fate of Africa -- 14. Provides reviews of websites on American history in the interwar period. The investment spree of the early 1930s encouraged industrial growth. The average annual production in the 1930s amounted to eleven million ounces 311 metric tons. The possession of colonies was no longer profitable, but colonial rulers were also creditors, who did not wish to relinquish their control.
Comparison of responses to the Depression by the American president Franklin Roosevelt and the German dictator Adolf Hitler. By collecting export taxes in those ports, colonial rulers could conveniently raise additional revenue. At that point, the rice price experienced a , and by 1933 rice was cheaper than wheat in India. Panic sales spread like wildfire. Many of them failed, and only larger companies, such as the United Africa Company and Lever Brothers, survived. Colonial Crisis Management: The Indian Experience -- 10. Key areas, such as Keynesian theory, are explained in accessible terms.
In the French , everybody above the age of fourteen was required to pay a higher poll tax, a tax that had already been increased as recently as the late 1920s. India's silver currency had served its colonial rulers very well, because it absorbed a large amount of the silver that became redundant in Europe when most countries demonetized it and shifted to the gold standard. From United Kingdom to U. Revue française d'outre mer 63 1976. The government in Togo, which was by that time a French mandate territory, relied heavily on the poll tax and had to repress a peasant rebellion in 1933.
Turkey and Egypt: Modernising States at the European Periphery -- 8. But when the export tax was lowered, the had to be increased, which the companies did not mind because it forced the peasants to produce for the market. Wheat and cotton, which were widely traded in the world market, led the downward trend, and they were soon followed by other types of produce, such as millets, which were grown only for local consumption. The rigidity of this system was due to the fact that the income from this tax had been pledged to Egypt's foreign creditors. The black farmhands who worked for the white farmers, and the miners in the gold mines did not share the benefits of reflation because the employers managed to keep wages down. In Southern Rhodesia maize was a major cash crop produced by white settlers. Even the Japanese invested in Chinese mills.
It was thus in a more comfortable position than other countries and could stay on the gold standard until 1936. This study broadens the conventional focus of the Great Depression to include its impact on the countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. A few regional case studies illustrate the fate of the peasants and the problems of the export of produce at the time of the Depression. A peasant could get away with paying no rent for some time, but then the landlord could sue him and he would forfeit his occupancy right. Online Resources: The United States , part of the American Memory Project at the Library of Congress.
Discussion network for historians, social scientists, and others interested in the interwar period of American history. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. . This depressed prices, and also subverted the old argument that access to colonial raw materials was essential for the European powers, and could only be secured by political control. Egypt was the only country in Africa where such an industry existed. Thus the rice price remained high everywhere in Asia in the summer of 1930.
The protective tariff of 1931 did not affect British imperial interests. The colonial government in Kenya subsidized its cultivation, however, because it was required as food for the African laborers. Japan did make a major advance in the Depression years by buying cheap Indian cotton and using the cheap labor of Japanese peasant girls to produce textiles. In response, Saya San, who had earlier petitioned the government on behalf of the peasants, led the peasants in a violent rebellion that took the British two years to suppress. The Origin of the Depression in America -- 6. The silver was quietly sold abroad by the British. During the Depression, the Congo's colonial rulers practically converted the whole colony into a huge plantation, ordering the peasants what to produce, dictating prices, and controlling delivery.
It was almost exclusively an Asian crop, produced and consumed locally. This situation contributed to a growing unrest that culminated in the Mau-Mau rebellion. The main crop in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia was wheat, but there were two varieties of it, hard wheat Triticum durum and normal wheat Triticum vulgare. This study broadens the conventional focus of the Great Depression to include its impact on the countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The fate of the Asian peasant has been disregarded, too.
Another special feature of the Egyptian economy was its dependence on the cultivation of cotton. Both varieties were exported, hard wheat mostly to Italy, where it was used for the preparation of pasta. The Tragedy of the International Gold Standard -- 3. Economic historians have hardly taken note of this Asian crisis of the 1930s. In Egypt, as elsewhere in Africa, the burden of the Depression was mostly shouldered by the rural poor, whereas the urban classes, particularly those who received salaries that had been fixed in better times, lived very well. Other rice-growing provinces of British India remained quiet during the period because peasants did not have to pay poll tax or even land revenue, but only rent to landlords. Egypt's system of taxation, a land revenue system of the Indian type, differed from tax systems in other African countries.
Moor, Jaap de, and Dietmar Rothermund, eds. Colonial control was required only to keep under control debtors who might cancel their debts. In February 1932, African currency was pegged to the pound sterling and maintained this relationship for a long time. Other areas discussed include: the impact on the peasantry in developing countries; the political consequences, such as fascism in Europe; and the aftermath and the re-alignment of America, Europe and its colonies. The Global Impact of the , 1929—1939. Most Asian countries were only marginally industrialized at that time and the was settled by an outflow of gold, so on these two counts there was no depression in Asia. When wheat became the first major crop whose price fell due to the Depression, the French colonial governments were pressed by the settlers mostly French to support the price of normal wheat; they did this to some extent, but showed no interest in the price of hard wheat grown by the Arabs.