An attempt will be made to assess this evidence, drawing on examples from different countries, including Zambia, Uganda and Tanzania. There are two main reasons: dishonesty on the part of leadership, and ignorance on the part of a large proportion of the population. European Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance Research, 4 2 , 33-48. The information provided on this website is not official U. Past work on educational stratification in the region has demonstrated similar trends, but not sought to explain the processes generating these patterns.
Rapid industrialization, on the other hand, requires a transformational analysis. Other factors determining a just sharing of the benefits and burdens of socio-economic change in many countries include the level of corruption, monitoring of social welfare programmes and systems for redressing grievances. Why do Structural Adjustment Programs lack growth elements, and what should be done to stimulate rapid development? These have affected the perception of economic activities and have affected economic policies in ways that perpetuate women's subordination. Qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with families and students contextualized study results and inform policy recommendations. A new sustainable energy path for African development: Think bigger act faster. These pre-requisites include social justice, good governance, true democracy as opposed to the sham democracy of the privileged elite or feudal class and gender equity.
For most regular, uninterrupted work is a thing of the past as private construction and public work projects have gradually dwindled to a halt. Not only are schools deteriorating, but the rising costs of schooling coupled with falling real wages are forcing children out of schools and into labor markets Adepoju 1993, Kanji, 1993. This will reduce importation pressure and the demand for foreign currencies. World Development, 35 4 , 702-713. Are Africans losing their independence? To these economists, the solution to the problem lay in a mechanistic manipulation of the import-export equation, which dictates that a country must export or earn more than it imports spends to generate a positive balance of trade. This study conducted by the bank's international economics department and reported by the Chief Economist, Mr.
To some extent this is a func of sources: analyses which rest largely on institutional data compilations i. In recent years over half of all African states have re-introduced some form of universal basic service provision, though many more have done so in education when compared with health. The most important challenge in our era is finding ways and means to enable workers to survive the realities of the Structural Adjustment Programme which has brought untold misery and poverty on peasants and workers in Zambia. Much of this discussion has focused on the negative social implications of these policies on parts of the population. International Journal of Public Administration and Management Research, 2 2 , 170-186.
The total trade liberalisation, high interest rates and the full removal of subsidies have threatened both agriculture and domestic industries. Outside the official circles, the dollar exchanges for about 80 naira, reflecting artificial demand due in part to speculative and fraudulent activities The fraud factor is so large that true demandthat which brings goods to Nigeriamay not be more than 10 percent of the apparent demand today. The adversities brought about by the policies ultimately violate international conventions on rights to life and well-being. Country specific studies are more suited than comparative studies to unravel these issues. Fiscal allocation for education in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications of the external debt service constraint.
Today, one dollar exchanges for over a thousand cedis. The foregoing benefits demonstrate that the linkage program would sustain itself once initiated. These different perceptions of the problem lead to the design of different programs. With the implementation of Structural Adjustment Programs in Kenya in the 1980's, the costs parents and caretakers incurred for their children's education expanded significantly Due, 1991; Reimers, 1994; Adepoju, 1993. In parts of the developing world, many state-sponsored or subsidised industries do produce low quality non-competitive goods with little market competition. These include adequate budgetary allocations for health and education, food subsidies, social action programmes etc. The answer is no because, as has been shown and argued by a number of scholars, the programmes were not the most effective and economical means for achieving those ends Adepoju, 1993; Mkandawire and Soludo 2002; Sparr 1994.
The adaptive economy ñ adjustment policies in small, low-income countries. Prior to that period the Nigerian economy was almost a command one with wide range of government control. What I learned at the world economic crisis. Thus the expectations of job creation, foreign exchange earnings and expanded markets which were to wean the economy from aid and expand industrialisation according to the bank, have not been realised. This is because the program would readily increase the size of scientific and technological manpower in African economics and this determines the rate of industrialization and productivity. Management Research Review, 34 2 , 156-171. Finally, it reviews some general solutions to the debt crisis and provides some tentative suggestions for future considerations.
We believe this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 U. The contents of this website are the sole responsibility of K4Health. Even if foreign capital could be attracted to Africa, not all countries would be able to benefit from such a strategy. Globalization and the poor: Exploitation or equalizer pp. Review of African Political Economy, 43 147 , 8-25. This paper examines why a growing number of government bureaucracies are attempting to develop and integrate participatory research and development approaches into their program activities. The reported profit of a sample of the industry constituted 3.