The Building up of Co-operative Unions. According to the report for 1912, out of 7,000 shares first and second issues together , of Rs. Then came the Second World War. Such a diagnosis was strong medicine to a people still seeking nationhood, in the heady days of the Irish renaissance and with little appetite for self-criticism. The newspaper headlines was the first intimation to Craig and the family in the Big House that Vandaleur had gambled all he possessed and lost. But his prescription for the social and economic betterment of his country was prescient then, and still relevant today.
Irish co-operation represented a sophisticated form of political economy that provided an influential ideological platform for Irish nationalists as they anticipated some form of political independence. It succeeded in what it attempted to do, and in a very short time. With the eleven other Unions there were thus altogether 28 Unions sanctioned by the Government. Finally, rural Irish people seemed reluctant to force their neighbors to repay loans or face adverse consequences, which undermined the monitoring and enforcement advantages that cooperatives potentially have over commercial banks. With these theoretical tools, I go on to categorise the Easter Rising as a 'cultural trigger point': an event or series of events that creates a sense of agency and urgency in the face of what is perceived by the members of the nation as an injustice. The Riga Central Agricultural Society developed in a short time wide activities, with a view of effecting funda- mental improvements in the soil, in the pasture lands, and in the utilisation of marsh lands.
The publication of agricultural literature is distributed over the various provinces, as follows : — No Periodi- cals. The next census, the first to be conducted on up-to-date scientific lines, was taken in 1897, when the population of Russia had risen to 125-6 millions. The members of the committee, who were all men of more or less considerable means, had helped financially the new societies. This power finds its expression in an unquenchable thirst for education and culture, in a watch- ful attention to the social questions of the day and an impulsive striving towards unity and organisation. The Unions continue to grow and develop.
After that People's Palaces were built by the Government Institutions for public. In 1915, a conference was held at Moscow to discuss ways and means of combating the rise in prices. The results achieved were thus greatly disappointing. Although the propensity to cooperate was higher in Denmark than in Ireland, and in Ulster than elsewhere in Ireland, Catholicism did not make cooperation more difficult in Ireland. .
In 1913 there were in Russia 35,000,000 horses, 51,000,000 heads of homed cattle, 78,000,000 sheep, and 16,000,000 pigs. Another important hop centre is the Guslitzk region, which covers a few districts of the Moscow, Riazan, and Vladimir juovinces. The Zemstvo at Perm had assigned in 1917 a sum of Ks. It is noteworthy that the view from Plunkett House remained 'all-Ireland' despite Partition. They inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of co-operation.
Other independent societies are part owners of the Group. They are highly useful educational institutions frequented by the people for purposes of education and amusement. By any standards, this was a remarkable achievement. The Moscow Union of Consumers' Societies has also initiated and assisted the establishment of special courses on co- operation at the University of Shaniavsky, with the object of preparing trained officials for the societies. The working of this Act showed several defects- 1. The situation demanded new forms of organization that retained old modes of production while providing economic security for individual producers. Irish bankers argued that credit cooperatives failed simply because there was no need for such an institution.
The following figures give a picture of the progress made by the bank : — On the 1st January, 1915, the month ly turnover of the bank was £850,000 ; on the 1st January, 1916, it reached £2,800,000 ; and on the 1st September, 1916, £5,000,000. In February, 1909, the Union had placed on the market its own tea, the demand on which, in 1911, amounted to 130,000 roubles. There are, however, very few agricultural co-operative societies in the strict sense of the word. The individual holding scheme prevailed in Western Russia, principally in the provinces of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno, Minsk, Podolia, Volhynia, and also in those of Kiev, Poltava, and Bessarabia ; in all other parts of Russia, but principally in the northern and central provinces, the communal form of ownership is pre- dominant. Rodgers offer Plunkett a fitting commemoration: So God save Ireland from her heroes, For what is needed is not heroism, but normal courage.
The artel borrows the capital it requires from one of its more wealthy members or from some outside source. The present war has so deeply affected the eoonomic life of Russia, it has so markedly changed the map of the Co-operative Movement, that much that was written on the Consumers' Co-operative Movement as recently as 1914 is now quite old and antiquated. Cork and the first co-operative creamery was opened in Dromcollogher, Co. The village shopkeeper in Russia holds the monopoly of trade in the village, and, taking advantage of his loosition, charges fancy prices for his wares. In the middle of the 'nineties of the last century, the special statistical census taken by the Ministry of Agriculture divided European Russia in two regions according to the agricultural implements employed by the peasants. This book reassesses all the key leaders of Irish nationalism, alongside key British political leaders - from Tone, Parnell and de Valera, to Haughey, Peel and Blair. It had formed a commercial department, wliich in 1909 had become an independent body called the Esthonian Economic Society, and is to all intents and purposes a Co-operative Union.