Responsibility: edited by Michael S. Given such information, product users, particularly those less familiar with a product, are more likely to exercise greater caution during use. Injury severity was a factor only when warnings were present; manufacturers were assigned greater responsibility for severe injury accidents than for less severe injuries. Third, we review the progress and status of research and application, with an emphasis on identifying those factors that appear to be most important in determining warning effectiveness. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Study 2 showed that perceived severity of injury related more strongly to perceptions of hazard than likelihood of injury. Results supported the two earlier studies and showed that severity of the first generated scenario was most predictive of hazard perception.
Results revealed significant differences between ethnic groups on several measured constructs. The results showed that different container shapes evoke different levels of hazard perception. Nevertheless, people prefer owner's manuals to electronic presentations of the same product information. A simple equation is employed to optimize the length of time encompassed by the back button, which would result in substantial time savings to users at least 17 seconds per message in which it was used. Of particular interest was the ability to decompose the total time it takes to find the warning in two components: location time and decision time.
The isometric strength and valve cracking tests were administered to a second sample of 118 men and 66 women. These results indicate that individual differences need to be taken into account when developing risk communications to accompany dietary supplements. We describe a major factor in research in warnings - namely, forensics. Results of two experiments indicated more responsibility was assigned to the consumer and less to the manufacturer when products were accompanied by a warning 76%—94% to the consumer , compared to a no-warning condition 41%—68%. Two examples are provided: vehicle seat recline and explicitness.
Three experiments were conducted in order to examine the effects of defendant wealth on civil litigation damage award decisions. The results indicate that warnings on the front label were found more quickly than warnings appearing in any other location. It is recommended that product warnings should be explicit regarding injury consequences, especially where injuries may be severe. Standards, guidelines, and research findings suggest that safety signs should generally contain four components: signal word, hazard, consequence and instruction statements. Challenges include issues associated with growing international trade such as language barriers, literacy and cultural values. The isometric strength and endurance work valve tests were administered to 26 men and 25 women. This book addresses the major issues in theory, research and applications of warnings and risk communication, bringing together the leading international authorities in the field.
These data were used to develop two job simulation tests, one measured valve cracking capacity, and the second the endurance needed to open or close a valve. Overall, the research suggests ways of making warnings more salient and thus increasing the probability that they will have the desired effects. Stimulated by the tremendous growth in litigation on product liability and associated personal injury, research into warning and risk communication has developed rapidly over the last few years. This article focuses on the most important factors in designing effective warnings. The fourth experiment again showed warnings played a significant role in the allocations, but injury severity did not. The results indicate that for facial recognition memory, change lowers recognition, but the magnitude of the effect depends on the kind of change.
The mean responsibility assigned to consumers was 85% and 41% with and without warnings, respectively. Many Americans have turned to dietary supplements for help in losing weight despite the significant health risks associated with their use. A significant interaction between the products and the four alternatives indicated that the allocation varied across products. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of some of the challenges and opportunities facing warning designers and researchers in the future. This book addresses the major issues in theory, research and applications of warnings and risk communication, uniting the leading international authorities in the field.
Logistic regression models defined the strength level needed to crack valves and completely close valves. A study addressing jury decisions regarding punitive damages awards in civil litigation was carried out. Each subject lifted seven boxes that ranged in weight from 6. Since hazard perception was found to be an important determinant of willlingness to read warnings, potential components of hazard perception were examined in Studies 2 and 3. The combination of a pictorial, color and an icon produced a significant decrease in total time, location time and decision time.
Non-design factors for the compliance stage include modeling the behavior of others and cost of compliance. Non-design factors for the knowledge stage include familiarity and perceived hazard. Practical Considerations Regarding the Design and Evaluation of Product Warnings. It is suggested that proper manipulation of these features could make the mandated warning more noticeable. A practice-driven approach to the initiation of research can benefit not only application and practice but also theory. In addition to implications for product safety, the results provide insights into jury decision making regarding the role of warnings in product liability litigation. Design factors affecting the knowledge and compliance stages include explicit wording and pictorials to provide hazard, consequences and instructional content.
The present study examined 17 container shapes, presented to participants as line drawings, on various dimensions including perceptions of hazard, likelihood of reading the label, ease of dispensing, and familiarity. Methodological Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Intentions and Compliance. A study was carried out exploring how people allocate responsibility for the safe use of products in the work environment. The mean percent responsibility allocated to these four choices was 41 %, 11%, 22% and 26% respectively. This effort has prompted important questions to be addressed that have resulted in publications. People may make assumptions about the hazard levels of products based on the physical characteristics of the container. A specific interest was how these perceptions relate to willingness to read product warnings.